This article describes four fuel-consumption models. The models are interrelated and form part of the same modelling framework. A simpler model is derived from a more complicated model keeping the vehicle characteristic such as mass, drag function, and energy efficiency as explicit parameters at all model levels. Because vehicle characteristics are likely to change over time and from country to country, this is a particularly useful model property. For simplicity here, only the instantaneous fuel-consumption model is described in any detail. However, because of the derivation procedure, many of the features and properties of this model are present in the more aggregate models. Easy-to-use functions and graphs are given for the more aggregate models based on a ''default car'' in urban driving conditions. All parameters related to the speed profile and driving environment were calibrated using on-road data collected in Sydney, Australia. Use of the models is illustrated by estimating the fuel consumption for the microtrip.
BIGGS, D.C. and AKÇELIK, R. (1986). Models for Estimation of Car Fuel Consumption in Urban Traffic. ITE Journal Vol. 56, No. 7, pp 29-32.