A model for estimating fuel consumption from instantaneous speed, acceleration and grade information is described. The model is suitable for use in the design of detailed traffic management schemes and, in particular, for determining the incremental effects on fuel consumption resulting from changes in traffic management. Basically, the model relates fuel consumption to the fuel to maintain engine operation and to the energy consumed (work done) in providing tractive force to the vehicle.
BIGGS, D.C. and AKÇELIK, R. (1986). An Energy-Related Model of Instantaneous Fuel Consumption. Traffic Engineering and Control, June 1986, Vol. 27 No 6, pp 320-325.