The queue length, delay and stop rate at isolated undersaturated signals are discussed. A formula is given for predicting stop rates. The formula allows for multiple stops in oversaturated cycles as well as a reduction due to partial stops, i.e. vehicles which slow down without coming to a complete stop. Formulae for pedestrian stops, delay and queues are given.
AKÇELIK, R. (1980). Stops at Traffic Signals. Proc. 10th ARRB Conf. 10(4), pp 182-192.