A brief review of existing fuel consumption models is presented in the light of recent developments in this area. Various levels of models are identified with regards to model simplicity and accuracy. Relationships of the models to each other and to fuel consumption data are considered in an effort to demonstrate the fundamental principles employed in the development and use of various fuel consumption models. A hierarchy of models is identified ranging from detailed models for automotive engineering purposes (level 0 models) to coarser models for traffic; levels in the model hierarchy can be associated with levels of traffic/transport systems, ranging from micro to macro scale. It is concluded that different levels of models are appropriate for different areas of use, but in a particular area of use it is preferable to use a single model which is applicable to a wide range of operating characteristics. It is felt that future research should place more emphasis on the use of on-road data.
AKÇELIK, R., BAYLEY, C., BOWYER, D. P. and BIGGS, D. C. (1983). A Hierarchy of Vehicle Fuel Consumption Models. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp 491-495.